ORCP 20 - Special pleading rules
SPECIAL PLEADING RULES
A Conditions precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to allege generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial of performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with particularity, and when so made the party pleading the performance or occurrence shall on the trial establish the facts showing such performance or occurrence.
B Judgment or other determination of court or officer; how pleaded. In pleading a judgment or other determination of a court or officer of special jurisdiction, it is not necessary to state the facts conferring jurisdiction, but such judgment or determination may be stated to have been duly given or made. If such allegation is controverted, the party pleading is bound to establish on the trial the facts conferring jurisdiction.
C Private statute; how pleaded. In pleading a private statute, or a right derived therefrom, it is sufficient to refer to such statute by its title and the day of its passage, and the court shall thereupon take judicial notice thereof.
D Corporate existence of city or county and of ordinances or comprehensive plans generally; how pleaded.
D(1) In pleading the corporate existence of any city, it shall be sufficient to state in the pleading that the city is existing and duly incorporated and organized under the laws of the state of its incorporation. In pleading the existence of any county, it shall be sufficient to state in the pleading that the county is existing and was formed under the laws of the state in which it is located.
D(2) In pleading an ordinance, comprehensive plan, or enactment of any county or incorporated city, or a right derived therefrom, in any court, it shall be sufficient to refer to the ordinance, comprehensive plan, or enactment by its title, if any, otherwise by its commonly accepted name or number, and the date of its passage or the date of its approval when approval is necessary to render it effective, and the court shall thereupon take judicial notice thereof. As used in this subsection, “comprehensive plan” has the meaning given that term by ORS 197.015.
E Libel or slander action.
E(1) In an action for libel or slander it shall not be necessary to state in the complaint any extrinsic facts for the purpose of showing the application to the plaintiff of the defamatory matter out of which the cause of action arose; but it shall be sufficient to state generally that the same was published or spoken concerning the plaintiff. If such allegation is controverted, the plaintiff shall be bound to establish on the trial that it was so published or spoken.
E(2) In the answer, the defendant may allege both the truth of the matter charged as defamatory, and any mitigating circumstances, to reduce the amount of damages, and whether the defendant proves the justification or not, the defendant may give in evidence the mitigating circumstances.
F Official document or act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to allege that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law.
G Recitals and negative pregnants. No allegations in a pleading shall be held insufficient on the grounds that they are pled by way of recital rather than alleged directly. No denial shall be treated as an admission on the ground that it contains a negative pregnant.
H Fictitious parties. When a party is ignorant of the name of an opposing party and so alleges in a pleading, the opposing party may be designated by any name, and when such party’s true name is discovered, the process and all pleadings and proceedings in the action may be amended by substituting the true name.
I Designation of unknown heirs in actions relating to property. When the heirs of any deceased person are proper parties defendant to any action relating to property in this state, and the names and residences of such heirs are unknown, they may be proceeded against under the name and title of the “unknown heirs” of the deceased.
J Designation of unknown persons. In any action to determine any adverse claim, estate, lien, or interest in property, or to quiet title to property, the plaintiff may include as a defendant in such action, and insert in the title thereof, in addition to the names of such persons or parties as appear of record to have, and other persons or parties who are known to have, some title, claim, estate, lien, or interest in the property in controversy, the following: “Also all other persons or parties unknown claiming any right, title, lien, or interest in the property described in the complaint herein.”