For purposes of ad valorem taxation, the determination of real and personal property is controlled by the statutory definitions of real property, whether or not they conform to definitions used for other purposes.
Real property includes:
Land. “Land” may be either the raw undeveloped land, or improved to the extent a site is created. A “site” exists when land has been improved by site developments to the point that it is, or is ready to be, used for the purpose intended.
Site developments are improvements to the land that become so intertwined with the land as to become inseparable. Examples are: fill, grading and leveling, utility facilities (sewer, water, etc.), cost of developer’s activities and profit that accrues to the land, including but not limited to: permits, advertising, sales commissions, developer’s profit and overhead, insurance coverage, and any other improvements to the land necessary to improve it to become a site. Site developments are synonymous with site improvements, land improvements, and site preparation. Site developments consist of both “offsite developments” and “onsite developments.”
Offsite developments are land improvements provided to the site. These include but are not limited to items such as streets, curbs, sidewalks, street lighting, storm drains, and utility services such as electricity, water, gas, sewer and telephone lines.
Onsite developments (OSD) are land improvements within the site which support the buildings or other property uses. These include but are not limited to items such as grading, fill, drainage, wells, water supply systems, septic systems, utility connections, extension of utilities to any structure(s), retaining walls, landscaping, graveled driveway area. Onsite development is synonymous with onsite improvement.
For all specially assessed farm and forest land appraisals the value of onsite developments included as part of the land value will be listed as a separate item on the land record. An exception to this procedure is the appraisal of taxable improvements on exempt federal land. In this situation, the onsite development value shall be carried as a separate item on the improvement record.
The value of site development may be higher or lower than the total cost of its components and is determined by the contribution of the site developments to the market value of the site.
Buildings, structures, improvements, machinery and equipment. These are improvements on the land and are real property when erected upon or affixed to the land.
Erected Upon. “Erected upon” means assembled, built or constructed and permanently situated on real property and adapted to use in place. For example, a large piece of machinery or equipment is set upon a foundation without being fastened thereto, but is integrated with the building by the use of special foundations, special wiring, electrical panels and switches, plumbing, venting, access ramps, openings and other forms of construction.
Affixed To. “Affixed to” means being annexed or attached to the real property by bolts, screws, nails or by being built into the structure. Also, items may be constructively affixed to the land or building and considered real property by virtue of their weight or size. Some examples include but are not limited to: pipeline milking equipment, milk bulk tanks, seed cleaning equipment, bowling alley lanes, pin setters, and scoring equipment, rock crushing plants, foundries, smelters, paper machines, newspaper presses, sawmills, plywood machinery and presses, aluminum reduction machinery and cannery equipment.