Oregon Department of Human Services, Aging and People with Disabilities and Developmental Disabilities
Residential Care Facility Building Requirements
A residential care facility (RCF) and a conversion facility (CF), as defined by OAR 411-054-0005 (Definitions), shall be built to the following requirements and may have individual or shared living units, unless specifically exempted.(1) Applicability for 411-054-0200 (Residential Care Facility Building Requirements) shall apply to the following:(a) A RCF not licensed prior to 01⁄15/2015, with the exception of411-054-0200 (Residential Care Facility Building Requirements)(5)(a) related to lockable doors. This will apply to all existing and new construction on the effective date as indicated.(b) A major alteration to a RCF for which plans were not submitted to Facilities, Planning, and Safety (FPS) prior to 01⁄15/2015; or(c) OAR 411-054-0200 (Residential Care Facility Building Requirements) shall apply only to the major alteration and shall not apply to any other area of the facility.(2) BUILDING CODES. Each RCF must meet the requirements of the facility standards set forth in these rules and with the building codes in effect at the time of original licensure.(a) Subsequent modifications made to a RCF after original licensure, including, but not limited to demolition, remodeling, construction, maintenance, repair, or replacement must comply with all applicable state and local building, electrical, plumbing, and zoning codes in place at the time of the modification.(b) If a change in use and building code occupancy classification occurs, license approval shall be contingent on meeting the requirements of the building codes.(c) A RCF must comply with FPS program requirements for submission of building drawings and specifications as described in OAR 333-675-0000 (Submission of Project Plans and Specifications for Review) through 333-675-0050 (Construction Project Review Fees).(3) GENERAL BUILDING EXTERIOR.(a) All exterior pathways and accesses to the RCF common-use areas, entrance, and exit ways must be made of hard, smooth material, be accessible, and maintained in good repair.(b) A RCF must take measures to prevent the entry of rodents, flies, mosquitoes, and other insects. There must be locked storage for all poisons, chemicals, rodenticides, and other toxic materials. All materials must be properly labeled.(c) RCF grounds must be kept orderly and free of litter and refuse. Garbage must be stored in covered refuse containers.(d) As described in OAR 411, division 057, memory care communities licensed as a RCF must be located on the ground floor. A CF cannot be endorsed as a memory care community.(e) A RCF must provide storage for all maintenance equipment, including yard maintenance tools, if not provided by a third-party contract.(f) A RCF must provide an accessible outdoor recreation area. The outdoor recreation area must be available to all residents. Lighting must be equal to a minimum of five foot candles. Memory Care Communities must provide residents with direct access to a secure outdoor recreation area as described in OAR chapter 411, division 057.(g) Outdoor perimeter fencing may not be secured to prevent exit unless the RCF has written approval from the Department for an exception or the RCF is in compliance with OAR chapter 411, division 057 (Memory Care Communities) or OAR 309-019-0100 (Purpose and Scope) through 309-019-0220 (Variances).(h) A RCF must have an entry and exit drive to and from the main building entrance that allows for a vehicle to pick up and drop off residents and mail deliveries without the need for vehicles to back up.(4) GENERAL BUILDING INTERIOR. The design of a RCF must emphasize a residential appearance while retaining the features required to support special resident needs as outlined in this rule.(a) RECEPTION AREA. A reception area must be visible and accessible to residents and visitors when entering the doors of the main entrance to the RCF.(b) CORRIDORS. Resident-use areas and units must be connected through temperature controlled common corridors.(A) Resident-use corridors exceeding 20 feet in length to an exit or common-use area, must have a minimum width of 72 inches. A CF may request an exception to this requirement, which shall be reviewed and decided on a case-by-case basis.(B) Corridors shall not exceed 150 feet in length from any resident unit to a seating or other common-use area. A CF may request an exception to this requirement, which shall be reviewed and decided on a case-by-case basis.(C) Handrails must be installed at one or both sides of resident-use corridors.(c) FLOORS.(A) Hard surface floors and base must be free from cracks and breaks.(B) Carpeting and other floor materials must be constructed and installed to minimize resistance for passage of wheelchairs and other ambulation aids.(C) Thresholds and floor junctures must be maintained to allow for the passage of wheelchairs and to prevent a tripping hazard.(d) INTERIOR DOORS. Lever-type door handles must be provided on all doors used by residents.(e) EXIT DOORS. Exit doors may not include locks that delay evacuation except as specified by the building codes. Such locks may not be installed except with written approval of the Department.(A) Exit doors may not include locks that prevent evacuation.(B) If an electronic code must be entered to use an exit door that code must be clearly posted for residents, visitors, and staff use.(f) WALLS AND CEILINGS. Walls and ceilings must be cleanable in kitchen, laundry, and bathing areas. Kitchen walls must be finished smooth per OAR 333-150-0000 (Food Sanitation Rule) (Food Sanitation Rules).(g) ELEVATORS. A RCF with residents on more than one floor must provide at least one elevator that meets Oregon Elevator Specialty Code (OESC) requirements.(h) The interior of the facility must be free from unpleasant odors.(i) All interior and exterior materials and surfaces (e.g., floors, walls, roofs, ceilings, windows, and furniture) and all equipment necessary for the health, safety, and comfort of the resident will be kept clean and in good repair.(5) RESIDENT UNITS. Resident units may be limited to a bedroom only, with bathroom facilities centrally located off common corridors. Each resident unit shall be limited to not more than two residents.(a) Resident units must have a lockable door with lever type handles, effective 01⁄15/2017. This applies to all existing and new construction.(b) For bedroom units, the door must open to an indoor, temperature controlled common-use area or common corridor. Residents may not enter a room through another resident’s bedroom.(c) Resident units must include a minimum of 80 square feet per resident, exclusive of closets, vestibules, and bathroom facilities and allow for a minimum of three feet between beds;(d) All resident bedrooms must be accessible for individuals with disabilities and meet the requirements of the building codes. Adaptable units are not acceptable.(e) A lockable storage space (e.g., drawer, cabinet, or closet) must be provided for the safekeeping of a resident’s small valuable items and funds. Both the administrator and resident may have keys.(f) WARDROBE CLOSET. A separate wardrobe closet must be provided for each resident’s clothing and personal belongings. Resident wardrobe and storage space must total a minimum volume of 64 cubic feet for each resident. The rod must be adjustable for height or fixed for reach ranges per building codes. In calculating useable space closet height may not exceed eight feet and a depth of two feet.(g) WINDOWS.(A) Each sleeping and living unit must have an exterior window that has an area at least one-tenth of the floor area of the room. A CF must have at least one exterior window with a minimum size of 8 square feet per resident.(B) Unit windows must be equipped with curtains or blinds for privacy and control of sunlight.(C) Operable windows must be designed to prevent accidental falls when sill heights are lower than 36 inches and above the first floor.(h) RESIDENT UNIT BATHROOMS. If resident bathrooms are provided within a resident unit, the bathroom must be a separate room and include a toilet, hand wash sink, mirror, towel bar, and storage for toiletry items. The bathrooms must be accessible for individuals who use wheelchairs.(i) UNIT KITCHENS. If cooking facilities are provided in resident units, cooking appliances must be readily removable or disconnect-able and the RCF must have and carry out a written safety policy regarding resident-use and nonuse. A microwave is considered a cooking appliance.(6) COMMON-USE AREAS.(a) BATHING FACILITIES. Centralized bathing fixtures must be provided at a minimum ratio of one tub or shower for each ten residents not served by fixtures within their own unit.(A) At least one centralized shower or tub must be designed for disabled access without substantial lifting by staff.(B) Bathing facilities must be located or screened to allow for resident privacy while bathing and provide adequate space for an attendant.(C) A slip-resistant floor surface in bathing areas is required.(D) Grab bars must be provided in all resident showers.(E) Showers must be equipped with a hand-held showerhead and a cleanable shower curtain.(b) TOILET FACILITIES. Toilet facilities must be located for resident-use at a minimum ratio of one to six residents for all residents not served by toilet facilities within their own unit. Toilet facilities must include a toilet, hand wash sink, and mirror.(A) Toilet facilities for all of the licensed resident capacity must be accessible to individuals with disabilities in accordance with the building codes.(B) A RCF licensed for more than 16 residents must provide at least one separate toilet and hand wash lavatory for staff and visitor use.(c) DINING AREA. The dining area must be provided with the capacity to seat 100 percent of the residents. The dining area must provide a minimum of 22 square feet per resident for seating, exclusive of serving carts and other equipment or items that take up space in the dining area. A RCF must have policies and equipment to assure food is served fresh and at proper temperatures. If a CF provides a minimum of 30 square feet per resident for a combined dining, activities, and living area, the CF may apply for an exception to this subsection.(d) SOCIAL AND RECREATION AREAS. A RCF must include lounge and activity areas for social and recreational use totaling a minimum of 15 square feet per resident. If a CF provides a minimum of 30 square feet per resident for a combined dining, activities, and living area, the CF may apply for an exception to this subsection.(e) COOKING STOVE. If a stove is provided in the activities or common-use area, and is available for resident-use, a keyed, remote switch, or other safety device must be provided to ensure staff control.(7) SUPPORT SERVICE AREAS.(a) MEDICATION STORAGE. A RCF must have a locked and separate closed storage area for medications, supportive of the distribution system utilized including:(A) A method for refrigeration of perishable medications that provides for locked separation from stored food items;(B) Medications must be stored in an area that is separate from any poisons, hazardous material, or toxic substance; and(C) A RCF licensed for more than 16 residents must provide a medication sink.(b) HOUSEKEEPING AND SANITATION.(A) A RCF must have a secured janitor closet for storing supplies and equipment, with a floor or service sink.(B) The wall base shall be continuous and coved with the floor, tightly sealed to the wall, and constructed without voids that can harbor insects or moisture.(c) LAUNDRY FACILITIES. Laundry facilities may be located to allow for both resident and staff use, when a time schedule for resident-use is provided and equipment is of residential type. When the primary laundry is not in the building or suitable for resident-use, a RCF must provide separate resident-use laundry facilities. A CF is not required to provide resident-use laundry services.(A) Laundry facilities must be operable and at no additional cost to the resident.(B) Laundry facilities must have space and equipment to handle laundry-processing needs. Laundry facilities must be separate from food preparation and other resident-use areas.(C) On-site laundry facilities, used by staff for facility and resident laundry, must have capacity for locked storage of chemicals and equipment.(D) The wall base shall be continuous and coved with the floor, tightly sealed to the wall, and constructed without voids that can harbor insects or moisture.(d) SOILED LINEN PROCESSING. For the purpose of this rule, “soiled linens and soiled clothing,” means linens or clothing contaminated by an individual’s bodily fluids (for example, urine, feces, or blood).(A) There must be a separate area with closed containers that ensure the separate storage and handling of soiled linens and soiled clothing. There must be space and equipment to handle soiled linen and soiled clothing processing needs that is separate from regular linens and clothing.(B) Arrangement must provide a one-way flow of soiled linens and soiled clothing from the soiled area to the clean area and preclude potential for contamination of clean linens and clothing.(C) The soiled linen room or area, must include a flushing rim clinical sink with a handheld rinsing device and a hand wash sink or lavatory.(D) When washing soiled linens and soiled clothing, washers must have a minimum rinse temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit unless a chemical disinfectant is used.(E) Personnel handling soiled laundry must be provided with waterproof gloves.(F) Covered or enclosed clean linen storage must be provided and may be on shelves or carts. Clean linens may be stored in closets outside the laundry area.(G) The wall base shall be continuous and coved with the floor, tightly sealed to the wall, and constructed without voids that can harbor insects or moisture.(e) KITCHEN AND FOOD STORAGE. Kitchen facilities and equipment in residential care facilities with a capacity of 16 or fewer may be of residential type except as required by the building codes. Residential care facilities licensed for a capacity of more than 16, must comply with OAR 333-150-0000 (Food Sanitation Rule) (Food Sanitation Rules). The following are required:(A) Dry storage space, not subject to freezing, for a minimum one-week supply of staple foods.(B) Refrigeration and freezer space at proper temperature to store a minimum two days’ supply of perishable foods.(C) Storage for all dishware, utensils, and cooking utensils used by residents must meet OAR 333-150-0000 (Food Sanitation Rule) (Food Sanitation Rules).(D) In facilities licensed to serve 16 or fewer residents, a dishwasher must be provided (may be residential type) with a minimum final rinse temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit (160 degrees recommended), unless a chemical disinfectant is used in lieu of the otherwise required water temperature. In facilities of 17 or more capacity, a commercial dishwasher is required meeting OAR 333-150-0000 (Food Sanitation Rule) (Food Sanitation Rules).(E) In residential care facilities with a capacity of 16 or fewer, a two compartment sink or separate food preparation sink and hand wash lavatory must be provided. In residential care facilities with 17 or more capacity, a triple pot wash sink (unless all pots are sanitized in the dishwasher), a food prep sink, and separate hand wash lavatory must be provided.(F) Food preparation and serving areas must have smooth and cleanable counters.(G) Stove and oven equipment for cooking and baking needs.(H) Storage in the food preparation area for garbage must be enclosed and separate from food storage.(I) Storage for a mop and other cleaning tools and supplies used for dietary areas must be separate from those used in toilet rooms, resident rooms, and other support areas. In residential care facilities with a capacity of 17 or more, a separate janitor closet or alcove must be provided with a floor or service sink and storage for cleaning tools and supplies.(J) Storage must be available for cookbooks, diet planning information, and records.(K) The wall base shall be continuous and coved with the floor, tightly sealed to the wall, and constructed without voids that can harbor insects or moisture.(8) HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS. A RCF must have heating and ventilation systems that comply with the building codes in effect at the time of facility construction.(a) TEMPERATURE. For all areas occupied by residents, design temperature for construction must be 75 degrees Fahrenheit.(A) A RCF must provide heating systems capable of maintaining 70 degrees Fahrenheit in resident areas. Required minimum temperatures are no less than 70 degrees Fahrenheit during the day and 60 degrees Fahrenheit during sleeping hours.(B) During times of extreme summer heat, fans must be made available when air conditioning is not provided.(b) EXHAUST SYSTEMS. All toilet and shower rooms must be equipped with a mechanical exhaust fan or central exhaust system that discharges to the outside.(c) FIREPLACES, FURNACES, WOODSTOVES, AND BOILERS. Where used, installation must meet standards of the building codes in effect at the time of construction. The glass and area surrounding the fireplace must not exceed 120 degrees Fahrenheit.(d) WALL HEATERS. Covers, grates, or screens of wall heaters and associated heating elements may not exceed 120 degrees Fahrenheit when they are installed in locations that are subject to incidental contact by people or with combustible material. Effective 01⁄15/2015, wall heaters are not acceptable in new construction or remodeling.(9) PLUMBING SYSTEMS. Plumbing systems must conform to the building codes in effect at the time of facility construction.(a) Hot water temperature in residents’ units must be maintained within a range of 110 - 120 degrees Fahrenheit.(b) Hot water temperatures serving dietary areas must meet OAR 333-150-0000 (Food Sanitation Rule) (Food Sanitation Rules).(c) An outside area drain and hot and cold water hose bibs must be provided for sanitizing laundry carts, food carts, and garbage cans.(10) ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS.(a) WIRING SYSTEMS. All wiring systems must meet the building codes in effect at the date of installation and shall be maintained and in good repair.(b) The use of extension cords and other special taps is not allowed.(c) LIGHTING. Lighting fixtures must be provided in each resident bedroom and bathroom, and be switchable and near the entry door.(A) Each resident bedroom must have illumination of at least 20-foot candles measured at three feet above the floor for way finding from the room entrance, to each bed, and to the adjoining toilet room, if one exists.(B) Lighting in toilet rooms and bathing facilities used by residents must be at least 50-foot candles, measured at the hand wash sink and three feet above the shower floor with the curtain open.(C) Corridor lighting must equal a minimum of 20-foot candles measured from the floor.(D) Table height lighting in dining rooms must equal a minimum of 25-foot candles, without light from windows.(11) CALL SYSTEM. A RCF must provide a call system that connects resident units to the care staff center or staff pagers. Wireless call systems are allowed.(a) A manually operated emergency call system must be provided in each toilet and bathing facility used by residents and visitors.(b) EXIT DOOR ALARMS. An exit door alarm or other acceptable system must be provided for security purposes and to alert staff when residents exit the RCF. The door alarm system may be integrated with the call system.(c) Security devices intended to alert staff of an individual resident’s potential elopement may include, but not be limited to, electronic pendants, bracelets, pins.(12) TELEPHONES. Adequate telephones must be available for resident, staff, and visitor use, including those individuals who have physical disabilities. If the only telephone is located in a staff area, it must be posted that the telephone is available for normal resident-use at any time and that staff shall ensure the resident’s uninterrupted privacy. Staff may provide assistance when necessary or requested.(13) TELEVISION ANTENNA OR CABLE SYSTEM. A RCF must provide a television antenna or cable system with an outlet in each resident unit.